JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc <p>Journal of Root Crops, the official publication of the Indian Society for Root Crops, publishes scientific papers, short scientific reports, original reviews and book reviews on all aspects pertaining to tropical root and tuber crops. One volume consisting of two issues is published annually. The articles forwarded to the Editor for publication are understood to be offered exclusively to the Journal of Root Crops. The authors are advised to refer to the previous issues of the Journal of Root Crops and prepare the manuscripts. Detailed instructions to the authors are being issued in the Journal from time to time. The LIFE time subscription fee for Journal of Root Crops in India is Rs.5000/- and US$700 outside India.The annual subscription for the Journal of Root Crops for non-members is Rs.1000/- in India and US$200/-outside India. For institutions, annual subscription fee is Rs.4000/- in India and US$500 outside India. 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They own the rights to freely grant or distribute the paper to any third party or public.</p> <p> </p> <p align="right"> (Signature of copyright holder or authorised agent)</p> Impact of fluctuating actinic high light stress on biomass and yield of cassava https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/602 <p>Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple crop grown in the tropics for food as a major calorie source as well as in industrial use. In natural environment, crops undergo rapidly changing light conditions which affects the photosynthetic efficiency. When exposed to excess photon flux densities, plants under go non photochemical quenching (NPQ) by which the excess energy is harmlessly dissipated as heat in order to protect the plants from photo-damage. Upon the transition to low or optimal light for photosynthesis, the slow rate of recovery of NPQ can limit effective photosynthetic efficiency which consequently results in low crop productivity. In the present study, the physiological and fluorescence responses of six field grown cassava genotypes to intermittent high red actinic light (IHL) were examined and compared against control plants grew under ambient light conditions. From the results, it was seen that overall average values of plant height and fresh above ground biomass (ABM) was higher under IHL conditions (206.6±26.5 cm and 2.34±0.67 Kg respectively), while high crop biomass (CBM) was observed in control condition (3.11±0.86 Kg). It was found that Sree Suvarna had the maximum CBM under both the control and IHL conditions (4.31±0.32 Kg and 4.11±0.44 Kg respectively). Higher average values of Pn measured was 34.04±1.6 ?molm-2s-1 (Control - Sree Suvarna), NPQ was 2.12±0.36 (IHL - Sree Athulya) and qN was 0.85±0.03 (Control - Sree Pavithra). Significant difference in fluorescence parameters and crop yield were observed between the light conditions and also between the cassava varieties. It was inferred that IHL has obviously affected the NPQ induction/relaxation process which resulted in reduced CBM compared to that under control condition.&nbsp;</p> Sadasivan Nair Raji Saravanan Raju Velumani Ravi Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 3 8 Enhancing factor productivity of a greater yam + maize intercropping system under drip fertigation https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/603 <p>Field experiments were conducted for consecutive two years (2015-16 and 2016-17) at the Regional Sation of ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Dumuduma, Bhubaneswar, Odisha to study the effect of drip irrigation and fertigation levels on factor productivity of a greater yam + maize intercropping. Drip irrigation treatments: I<sub>1</sub>=80% cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) during 1-270 days after planting (DAP); I<sub>2</sub>=100% of CPE during 1-90 DAP+80% of CPE during 91-270 DAP and I<sub>3</sub>=100% of CPE during 1-270 DAP were included in main plots. Fertigation treatments: F<sub>1</sub>=100-90-100 kg ha-1; F<sub>2</sub>=120-90-120 kg ha-1; F<sub>3</sub>=140-90-140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and F4=160-90-160 kg ha-1 of N-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-K<sub>2</sub>O were included in sub plots. A control (surface flood irrigation at 100% of CPE and soil application of N-P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-K<sub>2</sub>O 120-90-120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) was included to compare drip fertigation treatments. Treatment I<sub>3</sub> resulted in maximum maize yield; I2 resulted in maximum greater yam and tuber equivalent yield (TEY). Fertigation at F4 was resulted in higher maize and greater yam yield and TEY than other treatments. Treatments I<sub>2</sub>F<sub>4</sub> and I<sub>2</sub>F<sub>3</sub> were on par and resulted in higher greater yam yield, TEY, nutrient and water use efficiency. The treatments control and I1F2 resulted in same level of TEY, which indicated saving of 0.684-0.710 million litre (17.9-25.9%) of water per ha under drip irrigation. Same level of TEY with the treatments <em>viz.,</em> control and I<sub>2</sub>F<sub>1</sub>/I<sub>3</sub>F<sub>1</sub> also indicated a saving of nutrients N-K<sub>2</sub>O 20-20 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (20%) under drip irrigation over soil application. The treatment I2F3 (drip irrigation at 100% of CPE during 1-90 DAP + 80% of CPE during 91-270 DAP along with<br>fertigation of N-P<sub>2</sub>O5-K<sub>2</sub>O 140-90-140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) is recommended for greater yam + maize intercropping system considering greater TEY, nutrient and water use efficiency as well as minimum water requirement per kg of TEY production.&nbsp;</p> M. Nedunchezhiyan Kalidas Pati V.B.S. Chauhan S.K. Jata Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 9 15 Phenolic content and in vitro bioactivities of Chinese Potato (Plectranthus rotundifolius) tuber extracts https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/604 <p><em>Plectranthus rotundifolius</em>, commonly known as Chinese potato in India, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Mint family Lamiaceae and is native to the tropical Africa. These are found to be rich in nutrients and have great medicinal properties. The tubers contain several secondary metabolites that are of therapeutic and pharmaceutical importance. The tubers in the dry and cooked form were analysed for the phenolic content and the in vitro bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities by various biochemical assays. The tubers were also subjected to cooking to find out its effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The study revealed that cooked tubers have greater phenolic content and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities than the raw tubers and it indicates that cooked form of tuber is better to consume than the raw tuber.</p> Megha Madhavan V.R.Vishnu S. Shanavas Dr A N Jyothi Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 16 23 Integrated weed management in elephant foot yam cv. Gajendra https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/606 <p>The present investigation was undertaken at Shaheed Gundadhur College of Agriculture and Research<br>Station, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (IGKV), Jagadalpur, Chhattisgarh during 2019 and 2020 to<br>assess the effect of different weed management practices in Amorphophallus cv. Gajendra. The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replications with eightdifferent treatments based on the individual or combination of pre emergence herbicide, post emergence herbicides, hand weeding, ground cover and control. Among the treatments T<sub>5</sub> (Post-emergence herbicide at 30, 60 and 90 DAP) recorded the highest WCE (89.66%) followed by T<sub>4</sub> (Hand weeding at 45 DAP + Post-emergence herbicide at 90 DAP) 88.92%. Significantly higher yield, corm weight per plant and per hectare were recorded in T5 treatment (Post-emergence herbicide at 30, 60 and 90 DAP) followed by T<sub>1</sub> (Pre-emergence herbicide (1DAP) + Post-emergence herbicide at 45 and 90 DAP).</p> Upendra Kumar Naik Padmakshi Thakur Adikant Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 24 28 Time series modelling of monthly rainfall in southern Kerala https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/620 <p>This paper aimed to fit SARIMA model based on Box-Jenkins methodology to the time series data corresponds to monthly rainfall in three agro climatic regions viz., Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS) Vellayani, RARS Kumarakom and Cardamom Research Station (CRS), Pampadumpara representing different regions of Southern part of Kerala. The empirical model gave a picture of climate change scenario happened in both temporal and regional wise. The SARIMA model was fitted to monthly rainfall for all the regions Vellayani, Kumarakom, and Pampadumpara using the data for 31 years from 1991 to 2021. The best identified SARIMA models for rainfall were ARIMA (1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 1)<sub>12</sub>, ARIMA (0, 0, 0) (0, 1, 1)<sub>12</sub> and ARIMA (0, 0, 0) (0, 1, 1)<sub>12</sub>. The model parameters were obtained by using maximum likelihood method and the best model were selected using Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) and Hannan-quinn coefficient. The adequacy of the check of the selected models confirmed that the selected models were free from autocorrelation and the residuals are normally distributed.</p> R. S. Neethu Brigit Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 29 35 Productivity and profitability of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) under drip and furrow irrigation https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/619 <p>Productivity and profitability of taro under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was worked out based on the data collected from field experiments carried out at ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, for three years (2016-17 to 2018-19). The experiment was conducted in RBD, with upland taro variety, Muktakeshi, during summer, with seven treatments which included five levels of drip irrigation, furrow irrigation and a rainfed crop and three replications. The mean data over a period of three years indicated that drip irrigation @ 100% CPE resulted in the highest cormel yield, gross and net income and B:C ratio in taro. In addition to saving of irrigation water (30%), drip irrigation resulted in 45% increase in cormel yield, 57% increase in net income and 20% increase in B:C ratio, compared to furrow irrigation.</p> S. Sunitha J. Suresh Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 36 39 Strategies for enhancing post-harvest quality and shelf life of tuber crops: Insights from physiological perspectives https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/609 <p>This comprehensive review explores various strategies aimed at improving the quality and extending the shelf life of tubers such as potato, cassava, sweet potato and yams after they are harvested. It focuses on the physiological aspects involved in post-harvest storage. The review delves into the changes that occur within the tuber crops during storage, such as metabolic and biochemical transformations, shifts in respiration rates and ethylene production, and modifications in the composition and texture of cell walls. Additionally, the review addresses common physiological disorders that can arise during the storage of tuber crops, discussing their causes and the impact of storage conditions on their development. The review further provides insights into pre-harvest considerations, optimized harvesting techniques, postharvest treatments for disease and pest control, and the optimization of storage conditions to maximize the shelf life of tuber crops. It emphasizes the significance of physiological markers and indicators in assessing tuber quality and their role in making informed decisions during the post-harvest phase.<br>The review also explores advancements in post-harvest technologies, including modified atmosphere storage, cold storage, and innovative approaches for maintaining quality and inhibiting sprouting and discusses emerging trends in post-harvest physiology research, the challenges and opportunities for enhancing tuber crop quality, and potential areas for future investigation.</p> Saravanan Raju Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 40 52 Performance of improved varieties of cassava in two agroecological units of Kerala https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/610 <p>Cassava is an important source of energy in the diet of tropical countries of the world. It has enormous potential in India for food security and industrial uses due to its ability to grow in marginal and waste lands where other crops do not survive. Commercial planting of cassava is done from stem cuttings and because of the low multiplication rate as compared to cereals and pulses, the high yielding varieties released in the research institute takes many years to reach the farmers. Over the years, clonal multiplication degenerates the planting material, reduce tuber yield drastically and renders the cultivation of cassava uneconomical. An attempt was made to see the performance of improved varieties of cassava in Mattathur gram panchayat of Thrissur district which falls under Northern laterites Agro Ecological Unit 11 (AEU11) and Vellamunda panchayat of Wayanad district under Wayanad Central Plateau Agro Ecological Unit 21 (AEU21) of Kerala. The programme was implemented under the<br>project on Development of Tuber Crops financed by Government of Kerala during 2014-15 and 2015-16 undertaken by ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Hundred farmers were selected from Mattathur Krishi Bhavan of Thrissur districtand fifty farmers from Vellamunda Krishi Bhavan of Wayanad district. Quality planting materials of improved varieties of cassava from ICAR-CTCRI viz., Sree Jaya, Sree Vijaya, Sree Pavithra, CTM 820 and CTM 806 were distributed<br>to the farmers for cultivation in area of 10 cents of each, with a total areaof 6 ha. The cultivation of cassava was carried out under rainfed conditions with the guidance and the direct supervision of ICAR-CTCRI scientists. Farmers got an average tuber yield of 5.40 kg and 3.70 kg per plant with an average number of tubers 6.30 and 4.68 per plantin Mattathur and Vellamunda, respectively. Improved varieties of cassava produced significantly higher average tuber yield of 66.67 t ha-1 and 45.68 t ha-1 at Mattathur and Vellamunda, respectively. In both the locations, farmers could also produce 1.50 lakhs stems of improved varieties of cassava from 6 ha area within one season which were distributed to neighboring farmers and nearby districts for cultivation in an area of 60 ha.</p> R. Muthuraj James George S. Sunitha M. N. Sheela Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 53 56 Genetic variability for different quantitative characters in colocasia (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum.) https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/611 <p>An experiment was conducted withnine Colocasia (<em>Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum</em> (L.) Schott.) genotypes to evaluate the genetic variability for different quantitative characters. The experiment was conducted using a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The genetic parameters between yield and yield contributing characters of different Colocasia genotypes were studied. Analysis of variance showed significant variation among the genotypes for all tested characters. The highest total yield was recorded in Indira Arvi-1 (29.54 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), which was followed by TTr 17-1 and TTr 17-12 (25.31 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 18.27 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). Corm weight showed the highest genotypic and phenotypic variance (71.52 and 72.41), whereas the number of leaves showed the lowest one (14.95 and 18.72). High value of heritability was observed for all the characters except number of leaves per plant. Genetic advance as percent of mean was reported highest for total yield, yield per plant, weight of cormels and plant height. The genotypes exhibited a wide range of variability for all the traits studied.</p> Padmakshi Thakur Upendra Kumar Naik Vikas Ramteke Omesh Thakur Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 57 60 Harnessing the diversity of bacterial endophytes isolated from wild and cultivated taro plants against Phytophthora colocasiae https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/612 <p>Taro (<em>Colocasia esculenta</em> (L) Schott), a tuber crop which belongs to Araceae family is an important staple or subsistence crop for millions of people in developing countries. The crop capitulates to several fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases as well as some diseases of uncertain etiology. Taro leaf blight, a&nbsp; threatening disease of taro caused by <em>Phytophthora colocasiae</em> is associated with 90% and 50% loss in leaf and corm yield of taro, respectively. The preventive measures used by crop rotations and the use of improved disease resistant varieties have failed to completely eradicate the disease. Chemical fungicides are not only costly but have harmful effects on humans and the environment. Endophytes with antifungal activity can be exploited as excellent biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Hence, this study was centred on evaluating the antagonistic activity of endophytic bacteria and fungi associated with wild and cultivar taro plants itself against <em>Phytophthora colocasiae</em>. The study involves isolation of endophytic bacteria and evaluation of antagonism against the pathogen using in vitro dual culture method. A total of 97 bacterial endophytes were isolated from taro plants and they were evaluated for their antagonistic activities against Phytophthora colocasiae. The in vitro study indicated that among the bacterial isolates, KV9 showed the highest antagonistic activity of 84.07±1.04%. This research study demonstrates that these endophytes can be exploited to create a promising biocontrol agent against P. colocasiae in the taro field.</p> M. L. Jeeva S. S. Veena T. Makeshkumar S. U. Shilpa P. R. Amrutha Tom Cyriac Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 61 68 Taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott.) based intercropping systems: interspecies interaction effects on growth and yield https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/613 <p>Intercropping is a viable option to monoculture with a view to increasing the use efficiency of natural resources. A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Station of ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India for three consecutive years (2018-2000) on alfisols under rainfed conditions to study interspecies interaction in taro based intercropping systems. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, T<sub>1</sub>-sole taro, T<sub>2</sub>-sole maize, T<sub>3</sub>-sole pigeon pea, T<sub>4</sub>-<br>taro+maize (5:1), T<sub>5</sub>- taro+maize (5:2), T<sub>6</sub>- taro+pigeon pea (5:1) and T<sub>7</sub>-taro+pigeon pea (5:2). The treatments were replicated three times. During the cropping period, the weather was favourble for all the crops in all the years. The results revealed that taro border rows in intercropping resulted in higher growth characters and lower yield components and yield than sole crop rows. Maize and pigeon pea in intercropping resulted in higher growth characters, yield components and yield than sole maize and pigeon pea. Taro was affected by interspecies interference, whereas interspecies interference was minimalfor maize and pigeonpea under intercropping. As intercrop, pigeon pea affected taro corm and cormel yield more than maize as pigeon pea competed with taro for longer period (165 days) than maize (90 days). Under intercropping, the decrease in taro corm and cormel yield was due to decrease in taro population apart from intercrop (maize/pigeon pea) competition. Taro corm yield per ha was<br>affected more than cormel yield per ha under intercropping. The cormel equivalent yield (CEY) of taro sole cropping was higher and comparable to taro+maize (5:1) and taro+pigeon pea (5:1) intercropping systems. However, during unfavourable (lesser rainfall and rainy days) season only the potential of intercropping system will be realized.</p> M. Nedunchezhiyan K. Pati V. B. S. Chauhan K. H. Gowda R. Arutselvan S. K. Jata J. Dixit Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 69 74 Site-specific nutrient management improves soil quality in an ultisol under continuous cassava cultivation https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/614 <p>The study aimed to assess the impact of fertilizer applications on soil properties and compute soil quality index (SQI) in a laterite soil under cassava cultivation. The treatments comprised N omission, P omission, K omission, NPK omission, present recommendation (PR) and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM). Soil physico-chemical and biochemical properties were estimated and, selected minimum data set through principal component analysis and soil quality index were developed. Radar<br>diagram was plotted to find out the limiting parameter and correlation between SQI and crop yield was studied. Soil properties such as pH, organic C, labile C, available N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn showed significant difference among the treatments. SSNM resulted in significantly higher pH (4.60), labile carbon (0.143%), available N (214.82 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), Ca (119.70 ppm), Mg (156.15 ppm), Fe (10.20 ppm) and Zn (13.51 ppm) contents. PR treatment showed significantly higher content of organic C (1.17%) and available P (248.44 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Available K and Mn were significantly higher in N omission (472.92 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and NPK (47.80 ppm) omission treatment respectively. Normalised SQI was significantly highest for SSNM (0.86), followed by PR (0.73) and lowest for N omission (0.54), followed by P omission (0.55). No significant correlation was observed between crop yield and SQI. The study indicated that<br>SSNM resulted in improvement of soil quality as revealed from higher SQI.</p> G. Byju R. Shiny Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 75 82 Molecular identification of tortoise beetle and its endosymbiotic bacteria https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/615 <p>Tortoise beetles are one of the important defoliator pests of sweet potato, associated with a wide variety of bacterial endosymbionts that confer many ecologically relevant traits to the host insect. Endosymbiotic bacteria (ESB) play a vital role even in the physiology of the host, hence identification of ESB associated with the aphids will help to develop important strategies for the management of this noxious pest. Cassidini is the largest tribe of tortoise beetle in Kerala represented by 18 species in four genera, followed by Aspidimorphinia and notosacanthini. In the present study, molecular characterization of the sweet potato defoliator and endosymbiontic bacteria associated with them, was done. By molecular characterization they were identified as <em>Chiridopsis</em> sp. and sequences were deposited at NCBI with accession no OR416859. Morphological characters of the isolated revealed that each isolate has different colony characters. Further, the genomic DNA was isolated from each of the EPB isolates<br>and PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene was carried out using universal primers. The 16S rDNA gene sequences of endosymbiotic bacterial isolates were generated by sequencing the PCR product and were aligned with each other by using BioEDIT software. The nucleotide sequences were compared with those in the NCBI databases using the Basic Local Alignment Search and were identified as were confirmed as <em>Kosakonia cowanii</em> and <em>Kosakonia</em> sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were also deposited at NCBI database with accession no OR426444, OR418414. From the aligned sequences phylogenetic tree was constructed by the Neighbor- Joining method using MEGA version 11.</p> B. G. Sangeetha Gadha Dileep S. Lekshmi P. Drishya E. R. Harish Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 83 88 Optimisation of Callus Induction in the Leaf and Stem Tissues of the Orange Flesh Sweet potato Variety Bhu Sona https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/617 K. M. Senthilkumar Ashna Prasad M. N. Sheela Vivek Hedge N. Krishna Radhika A. V. V. Koundinya Shirly R. Anil Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 89 92 A New Nutrient Rich Biofortified Greater Yam Variety: Gujarat Greater Yam-1 (Hemlata) https://journal.isrc.in/index.php/jrc/article/view/618 Himani B. Patel K. D. Desai C. G. Intwala H. R. Rathod Copyright (c) 2023 JOURNAL OF ROOT CROPS 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 47 1 & 2 93 95